MANAGING SHIFTING FISHERIES RESOURCES
THE IMPLICATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND OVER-EXPLOITATION OF MOVING FISH STOCKS
Keywords:Climate change, over-exploitation, fisheries management, Northeast Atlantic mackerel
The unprecedented rate of climate change and over-exploitation of resources has had a significant impact on ecosystems around the globe. In particular, the oceanic realm has encountered multiple changes to ecosystem conditions, food web dynamics and habitat constructs. Many marine species have been driven to shift their geographical range in reaction to reaching their physiological limits causing severe metabolic stress. This includes key fishery targets, such as pelagic and carnivorous fish, that supply many nations with their primary or secondary protein source. The shift also spurs an array of political and economic consequences due to the need for fisheries to follow or target different fish stocks that are no longer in their exclusive economic zone or legal fishing waters. For this reason, and many other logistical and financial reasons, management strategies have struggled to maintain and sustain fish stocks around the globe. This paper will look at a Northeast Atlantic mackerel case study, compare and analyse the implications of shifting fish stocks, and illustrate difficulties related to managing the fisheries which target these stocks. Furthermore, we highlight the need for a combination of global strategies, and smaller-scale ecosystem approaches in fisheries management to be able to sufficiently sustain fisheries and thus future food security, during a time of climatic change.
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