• Zainal Arifin Research Centre for Oceanography (RCO), Indonesian Institute of Sciences
  • Dede Falahudin Research Centre for Oceanography (RCO), Indonesian Institute of Sciences



average weekly intake (AWI), risk quotients (RQs), heavy metals, health risk, Kalimantan


Consumption of both marine and freshwater fishes is considered as a healthy way to obtain diet, but the ingestion of contaminated fishes remains a concern. Our study is conducted to asses cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) contents in various fishes consumed by coastal communities in six districts of West Kalimantan (Indonesia) and their health risks to the communities. Specifically, the objectives of this study are to determine the average weekly intakes (AWIs) of cadmium and lead based on dietary intake of fishes, then estimate health risk associated with fish consumption using the risk quotients (RQs) method. We also use food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) filled by 696 respondents to assess fish consumption habit of the communities in West Kalimantan who consumed up to 30 fish species in 2012 and 2013. Our results show that their average weekly fish consumption is 135.7 ± 66.3 g/week, which contributes to AWI values of 0.38 ± 0.55 ?g/kg body weight (bw) per week for Cd and 0.87 ± 0.65 ?g/kg bw per week for Pb. The RQ values indicate a low risk of Pb coming from fish consumption, but the RQ value for Cd is high for the children age group. In conclusion, fish consumption in the six districts of coastal communities in West Kalimantan generally does not pose any health risk from Pb. Conversely, Cd intake from fish consumption has a potential risk for children. As such, regular monitoring and additional studies are needed on potential contribution of Cd intake from other food sources.


Download data is not yet available.


Adel, M., Dadar, M., Fakhri, Y., Oliveri-Conti, G., & Ferrante, M. (2016). Heavy metal concentration in muscle of pike ( Esox lucius Linnaeus, 1758) from Anzali international wetland, southwest of the Caspian Sea and their consumption risk assessment. Toxin Reviews, 35(3–4), 217–223.

Afonso, C., Cardoso, C., Lourenço, H. M., Anacleto, P., Bandarra, N. M., Carvalho, M. L., … Nunes, M. L. (2013). Evaluation of hazards and benefits associated with the consumption of six fish species from the Portuguese coast. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 32(1), 59–67.

Alexander, J., Benford, D., Cockburn, A., Cravedi, J.-P., Dogliotti, E., Di Domenico, A., … Verger, P. (2009). SCIENTIFIC OPINION Cadmium in food Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain. The EFSA Journal, 980, 1–139.

Arifin, Z., Ismail, M. F. A., Purbonegoro, T., Falahudin, D., & Putri, M. R. (2014). Heavy metals contaminants in coastal waters of West Kalimantan. Research Centre for Oceanography, Indonesian Institute of Science.

Arnich, N., Sirot, V., Rivière, G., Jean, J., Noël, L., Guérin, T., & Leblanc, J.-C. (2012). Dietary exposure to trace elements and health risk assessment in the 2nd French Total Diet Study. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50(7), 2432–2449.

Athanasiadou, E., Kyrkou, C., Fotiou, M., Tsakoumaki, F., Dimitropoulou, A., Polychroniadou, E., … Michaelidou, A.-M. (2016). Development and Validation of a Mediterranean Oriented Culture-Specific Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. Nutrients, 8(9), 522.

Bosch, A. C., O’Neill, B., Sigge, G. O., Kerwath, S. E., & Hoffman, L. C. (2016). Heavy metals in marine fish meat and consumer health: a review. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 96(1), 32–48.

BPS. (2013). Kalimantan Barat In Figure 2013. BPS-Statistics of Kalimantan Barat.

Chien, L.-C., Yeh, C.-Y., Jiang, C.-B., Hsu, C.-S., & Han, B.-C. (2006). Estimation of acceptable mercury intake from fish in Taiwan.

Damiano, S., Papetti, P., & Menesatti, P. (2011). Accumulation of heavy metals to assess the health status of swordfish in a comparative analysis of Mediterranean and Atlantic areas. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62(8), 1920–1925.

European Commission. (2006). Setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs, Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006. Official Journal of the European Union, 77, 1–13.

Gao, M., Klerks, P. L., Wu, X., Chen, H., & Xie, L. (2016). Metal Concentrations in Sediment And Biota of the Huludao Coast in Liaodong Bay and Associated Human and Ecological Health Risks. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 71(1), 87–96.

Harris, S. A., Urton, A., Turf, E., & Monti, M. M. (2009). Fish and shellfish consumption estimates and perceptions of risk in a cohort of occupational and recreational fishers of the Chesapeake Bay. Environmental Research, 109(1), 108–115.

Hassan, A. R. H. A., Zeinhom, M. M. A., Abdel-Wahab, M. A., & Tolba, M. H. (2016). Heavy Metal Dietary Intake and Potential Health Risks for University Hostel Students. Biological Trace Element Research.

Hoekstra, J., Hart, A., Owen, H., Zeilmaker, M., Bokkers, B., Thorgilsson, B., & Gunnlaugsdottir, H. (2013). Fish, contaminants and human health: Quantifying and weighing benefits and risks. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 54, 18–29.

Ilmiawati, C., Yoshida, T., Itoh, T., Nakagi, Y., Saijo, Y., Sugioka, Y., … Kayama, F. (2015). Biomonitoring of mercury, cadmium, and lead exposure in Japanese children: a cross-sectional study. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 20(1), 18–27.

Kamaruzzaman, B. Y., Ong, M. C., & Rina, S. Z. (2010). Concentration of Zn, Cu and Pb in some selected marine fishes of the Pahang coastal waters, Malaysia. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(3), 309–314.

Kjellström, T., & Nordberg, G. F. (1978). Model of Cadmium in the Human Being. Environmental Research, 16(1), 248–269.

Koesmawati, T. A., & Arifin, Z. (2015). Mercury and Arsenic Content in Seafood Samples From the Jakarta Fishing Port, Indonesia. Marine Research in Indonesia, 40(1), 9.

McPherson, C. A., Chapman, P. M., Vigers, G. A., & Ong, K. S. (1999). ASEAN Marine Water Quality Criteria: Contextual Framework, Principles, Methodology and Criteria for 18 Parameters. ASEAN Marine Environmental Quality Criteria - Working Group (AMEQC- WG), ASEAN-Canada Cooperative Programme on Marine Science - Phase II (CP. EVS Environment Consultants, North Vancouver and Department of Fisheries, Malaysia.

Moghames, P., Hammami, N., Hwalla, N., Yazbeck, N., Shoaib, H., Nasreddine, L., & Naja, F. (2016). Validity and reliability of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate dietary intake among Lebanese children. Nutrition Journal, 15, 4.

MPP-EAS. (1999). Malacca Straits: Refined Risk Assessment. MPP-EAS Technical Report No.23/PEMSEA Technical Report No. 1, 89p. GEF/UNDP/IMO Regional Programme for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pollution in the eas asian Seas (MPP-EAS)/Partnerships in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia (PEMSEA), Quezon City, Philippines.

Neff, M. R., Bhavsar, S. P., Ni, F. J., Carpenter, D. O., Drouillard, K., Fisk, A. T., & Arts, M. T. (2014). Risk-benefit of consuming Lake Erie fish. Environmental Research, 134, 57–65.

Nybacka, S., Bertéus Forslund, H., Wirfält, E., Larsson, I., Ericson, U., Warensjö Lemming, E., … Lindroos, A. K. (2016). Comparison of a web-based food record tool and a food-frequency questionnaire and objective validation using the doubly labelled water technique in a Swedish middle-aged population. Journal of Nutritional Science, 5, e39.

Purbonegoro, T., Damar, A., & Arifin, Z. (2014). Heavy metals in suspended solids and sediments of Kapuas eastuary, West Kalimantan. Jurnal Oseanologi Dan Limnologi Di Indonesia, 40(1), 55–70.

Putri, L. S. E., Prasetyo, A. D., & Arifin, Z. (2012). GREEN MUSSEL ( Perna viridis L . ) AS BIOINDICATOR OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION AT KAMAL ESTUARY, JAKARTA BAY, INDONESIA. Journal of Environmental Research And Development, 6(3), 389–396.




How to Cite




Original Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>